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Legionnaires’ Disease Detection

Legionnaires’ disease is a serious form of pneumonia that carries with it a mortality rate in the order of 10-15% in otherwise healthy individuals. Symptoms include a flu-like illness, by a dry cough and frequently progress to pneumonia. Approximately 30% of people infected may also present with diarrhoea and vomiting and around 50% may show signs of mental confusion. The incubation period normally ranges from 2-10 days with 3-6 days the typical illness onset time after exposure. Legionnaires’ disease may present as an outbreak of two or more cases following a limited temporal and spatial exposure to a single source, as a series of independent cases in an area in which it is highly endemic or as sporadic cases without any obvious temporal or geographical grouping. Outbreaks have occurred repeatedly in buildings such as hotels and hospitals. 

The CDIA Legionella Rapid Test Kits allow for early diagnosis of Legionella pneumophila infection through detection of different samples (Serum, Plasma, Urine and environmental samples) related to the infection and spread of Legionnaires’ Disease. For example, Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 antigen has been detected in urine as early as three days after the onset of symptoms. The test is rapid, giving a result within 15 minutes, and utilizes a urine specimen which is convenient for collection, transport, and subsequent detection of early, as well as later, stages of disease. Other antigens or antibody test is also available in CDIATM Test.

Reference

1. Roig, J., X. Aquiler, J. Ruiz, et. al. Comparative study of Legionella pneumophila and other nosocomial-acquired pneumoniaes. Chest. 1991;99:344-50.

2. Berdal, B.P., C.E. Farshy, and J.C. Feeley. Detection of Legionella pneumophila antigen in urine by enzyme-linked immunospecific assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 1979;9:575-578.

3. White A., et al. Rapad diagnosis of Legionnaires’ disease. Trans Am Clin. Climatol. Assoc.l 1982;93:50-62.

4.Bibb, W.F., P.M. Arnow, L. Thacker, and R.M. McKinney. Detection of soluble Legionella pneumophila antigens in serum and urine specimens by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. J. Clin. Microbiol. 1984;20:478-482.5.Tang, P.W., and S. Toma. Broad-spectrum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Legionella soluble antigens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 1986;24:556-558.

6. Kohler, R.B., W.C. Winn, Jr., and L.J. Wheat. Onset and duration of urinary antigen excretion in Legionnaires’ disease. J. Clin. Microbiol. 1984;20:605-607.

Related reading: Legionella pneumophila serogroups test L. Pneumophila Rapid Test

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