The presence of light-chains specific free κ/λ in urine may be an indication of a mono-or polyclonal gammapathy. This pathology, called Bences Jones Proteinuria, is characterized by the indiscriminate proliferation of B-cell lymphocytes which are detectable in the urine as free κ and λ proteins. The pathology is associated with Multiple Myeloma, Waldenström’s Macroglobulinemia, monoclonal light chain amiloidosis, and light chain deposition disease.
Principle Of The Test
The Dipstick Bence Jones Free κ/λ kit is a competitive, immuno-chromatographic assay, based on lateral flow nitrocellulose membrane technology. The assay has 3 reaction zones without prozone effect:
1. The first zone (closest to dipstick tab) represents the procedural control (CP).
2. The second zone (middle) line striped with free Lambda antigens.
3. The third zone (lowest) line striped with free Kappa antigens.
During the incubation of the dipstick device in unconcentrated, diluted urine free light chains bind to a colloidal gold conjugated antibody present in the nitrocellulose membrane resulting in the formation of an antigen-conjugate complexes in the presence of free light chain proteins. In a lateral flow motion the sample starts to migrate to the three test zones and, if present in the sample, free light chain proteins compete for the respective available sites for binding. The sample continues to migrate to the control zone which is specific against the capture conjugate to indicate proper test function.