Celiac disease (CD) is a human enteropathy caused by a permanent intolerance to gluten and, more specifically, to its protein fraction, called gliadin. In genetically-predisposed people, ingesting this protein induces a severe lesion of the intestinal mucosa characterized histologically by crypt hyperplasia with total or subtotal atrophy of the intestinal villi. Definitive diagnosis of celiac disease is based on the typical histological changes observed in intestinal biopsies. However, serologic tests such as detection of circulating anti-gliadin, anti-tTG and anti-endomysial antibodies represent cheaper, less invasive analysis methodsto detect this disease.
Celiac disease is an autoimmune disease which provokes thatGluten, a proteinfound in products made from wheat, barley, rye and oats reacts with the lining of the gut in this condition, causing damage and preventing normal absorption of food. In some mild cases, it may be difficult to diagnose, but when severe it can cause evidence of malnutrition (growth delay and failure to gain weight in children, weight lossin adults) and malabsorption (foul smelling bowel motions that float and have a greasy appearanceand diarrhoea).
Principle Of The Test
IgA-type antibodies present in the blood of patients having celiac disease, those acting against tissue transglutaminase (tTG) and against gliadins among them, react with latex particles conjugated with human anti-IgA antibodies. These colloidal particles/anti-IgA antibodies/IgA complexes migrate through a chromatographic process towards the reaction area. In this area, there are both human recombinant tTG and wheat gliadins, which react with the colloidal particles/anti-IgA antibodies/anti-tTG IgA complexes in the first case, and with colloidal particles/anti-IgA antibodies/anti-gliadin IgA complexes in the second case.Both reactions produce red/pink bands.