Rotaviruses have been diagnosed as causing diarrhea in nearly every mammalian species.
Rotaviruses are important causes of severe gastroenteritis in many new born animals, especially in intensively reared farm animals. Rotaviral gastroenteritis may result in mortality for populations at risk such as infants, the elderly, and immunocompromised patients. In temperate climates, Rotavirus infections occur mainly in the winter months.
Rotavirus is one of the factors in “Neonatal disease complex”, 27% of death cases were caused by rotavirus (Animal Pharm, April 1997). Infected animals exceed enormous numbers of Rota viral particles, and usually are detectable up to 1 week after infection or for more than 30 days in immunocompromised patients, thus contaminating the environment. The risk of getting a herd outbreak of neonatal diarrhea is particularly high during the parturition season because of rapid spread of the virus.
Rotavirus is transmitted by the fecal-oral route; clinical as well as subclinical infections are common. Symptoms are diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration and apathy.
Since rotavirus is resistant to many disinfectants and is not inactivated by either extreme temperature nor pH, the source of infections may persist on a farm for many months. A built-up of contamination can also depend on shedding of rotavirus by subclinically infected adult animals.
Rotavirus can also cross species barriers. Human rotavirus can infect animals and vice-versa, with canine and feline-like viruses found in humans. Given these circumstances there is a high need for a rapid and simple test to diagnose rotavirus infections.
Principle Of The Test
The Rotavirua Ag One-Step is based on a chromatographic principle in which a monoclonal antibody with reacts with epitopes of the Rotavirus. A monoclonal antibody is conjugated to colloidal gold particles and a monoclonal antibody is immobilized on the test strip in the test zone “T”. Rotavirus in the faeces sample that is applied to the test strip at the sample zone “S”, will bind to the colloidal gold particles which then migrate to zone ”T”. A colour change in zone “T” indicates a positive test. Colloidal gold particles are also immobilized on the test strip in the control zone “C”, to indicate that the test is working properly.