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Rapid CDIATM Microcystins kits are are intended for the detection of Microcystins in water.

Most of the world's population relies on surface freshwaters as its primary source for drinking water. The drinking water industry is constantly challenged with surface water contaminants that must be removed to protect human health. Toxic cyanobacterial blooms are an emerging issue worldwide due to increased source water nutrient pollution caused by eutrophication. Microcystins and Nodularins are cyclic toxin peptides. Microcystins (of which there are many structural variants, or congeners) have been found in fresh water throughout the world. To date, approximately 80 variants of Microcystin have been isolated. The most common variant is Microcystin-LR. Other common Microcystin variants include YR, RR, and LW. These toxins are produced by many types of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae), including Microcystis, Anabaena, Oscillatoria, Nostoc, Anabaenopsis, and terrestrial Hapalosiphon. Nodularins are produced by the genus Nodularia and they are found in marine and brackish water.
Acute poisoning of humans and animals constitutes the most obvious problem from toxic cyanobacterial blooms, and in several cases has led to death. Human and animal exposure to these toxins occurs most frequently through the ingestion of water, through drinking or during recreational activities in which water is swallowed. These toxins mediate their toxicity by inhibiting liver function and are potent inhibitors of the serine/threonine protein phosphatases, and therefore they may act as tumor promoters.
To protect consumers from adverse health effects caused by these toxins, the World Health Organization (WHO) has proposed a provisional upper limit for Microcystin-LR of 1.0 ppb (µg/L) in drinking water. For recreational bathing waters, the WHO has established the following guidelines: (1) Relatively low risk of exposure effect at 4 ng/mL (ppb). (2) Moderate probability of exposure effect at 20 ng/mL. (3) High probability of exposure effect- scums. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has also established guidelines for Microcystins in drinking water: (1) For children below school age, 0.3 µg/L (ppb). (2) For all other age groups, 1.6 µg/L (ppb).

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